JavaScript seem to be disabled in your browser. The army was reduced. Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, p.66, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreston1983 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBeevor2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPreston2006 (. [4] A general strike was called by the UGT and the PSOE in the name of the Alianza Obrera. - Jordan then responded by shelling Jerusalem, which although the Israeli's claim it was not their original intention to fight with Jordan, resulted in a determination to wipe out the Jordanians. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed. The Battle of the Ebro in July–November 1938 was the final desperate attempt by the Republicans to turn the tide. Successes of the Republic Failures of the Republic Regional Economic / Social Political Military Religious Extension Task: Why did the Spanish Second Republic Fail? Soon, though, the rebels began to erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east. This helped the development of the fascist-inspired Falange Española, a National party led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the son of the former dictator, Miguel Primo de Rivera. [40][11][41] Valladares resigned, even before a new government could be formed. donquijote. Another reason for the downfall of the Left Republic (1031~33) was its extreme anticlerical measures. The Second Spanish Republic. REVISTA DE ESTUDIOS POLITICOS 177 (2017): 147-179. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPresto1983 (. Period: Jan 1, 1931 to Dec 31, 1932. [26], With the new constitution approved in December 1931, once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. In a speech delivered on 27 November 1932, at the Madrid Ateneo, he protested: "Even the Inquisition was limited by certain legal guarantees. Military reform headed by a politician (and civilian), however, did cause alarm. It came on the tails of the crash of 1929 and ended with General Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War. Primary Sources Second Republic. In 1932 the Jesuits (who were in charge of some schools throughout the country) were banned and had all their property confiscated and the army was reduced. [34] The Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga, an Azaña's supporter, and an exiled vocal opponent of Francisco Franco is the author of a sharp critical reflection against the participation of the left in the revolt: "The uprising of 1934 is unforgivable. Abroad Spain is classified as insolvent. "[27], In 1933, all remaining religious congregations were obliged to pay taxes and banned from industry, trade and educational activities. In response a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members of parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July on a revenge mission. It also set out to tackle its military aim of reforming he army to improve its efficiency; this was done by asking 50% of the officers to retire. Before long the professional Army of Africa had much of the south and west under the control of the rebels. The government headed by Manuel Azaña undertook deep reforms to modernise Spain and stabilize the Republican regime. [39], In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. (15 mins) Debate each of these statements as a class. [6] In the occupied areas, the rebels officially declared a proletarian revolution and abolished regular money. The Constitution guaranteed a wide range of civil liberties, but it opposed key beliefs of the conservative right, which was very rooted in rural areas, and desires of the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, which was stripped of schools and public subsidies. [30][31] The miners proceeded to occupy several other towns, most notably the large industrial centre of La Felguera, and set up town assemblies, or "revolutionary committees", to govern the towns that they controlled. The right abandoned the parliamentary option and began to conspire to overthrow the republic, rather than taking control of it.[10][11]. Three days later (17 July), the coup d'état began more or less as it had been planned, with an army uprising in Spanish Morocco, which then spread to several regions of the country. [28], The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). [19] A Catholic church in Zaragoza was burnt down in 1933. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA finally forced the appointment of three of its three ministries. The issue was that the Left Republicans identified the Republic not with democracy or constitutional law but with a specific set of left-wing policies and politicians. Territories and colonies of the Spanish Republic: Assassinations of political leaders and beginning of the war, Payne, Stanley G. The collapse of the Spanish republic, 1933–1936: Origins of the civil war. The coup failed due to the popular resistance and the support of some police forces loyal to the Republic. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. • Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. There were numerous mistakes - whether it be the Asturia's uprising (the government's oppressive methods) or the Agrarian Reform Law; by the 1930s all these tension caused by the government had built up, and once the murder in 193 was done, everything escalated. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid, despite a Nationalist assault in November 1936, and frustrated subsequent offensives against the capital at Jarama and Guadalajara in 1937. [52] However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. Die Zweite Spanische Republik (spanisch Segunda República Española [seˌɣunda reˈpuβlika espaˌɲola]) bezeichnet in Spanien die Epoche von 1931 bis 1936 bzw. But without the money to carry out its promises, the Republic lost yet more support, this time from the working class. [15] The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. The military reform was also a failure; although in theory it would make the army more efficient, in practice this did not happen. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic. Second Republic. The Second Spanish Republic's economy was mostly agrarian, and many historians call Spain during this time a "backward nation". Cambridge University Press, 2017, p-17, Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Background of the Spanish Civil War § Second Republic, Background of the Spanish Civil War § The "black biennium", German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Coat of Arms of the Second Spanish Republic, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, "abc.es: "La quema de iglesias durante la Segunda República" 10 May 2012", Perspectives on religious freedom in Spain, "A History of Spain and Portugal (Print Edition)", "24 horas - Stanley G. Payne: "Las elecciones del 36, durante la Republica, fueron un fraude, "The Spanish Civil War exhibition: Mainline text", "La Pasionaria's Farewell Message to the International Brigade fighters", https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29428326.pdf, Constitución de la República Española (1931), English Translation of the Constitution of the Spanish Republic (1931), Pro-Republic, 75th Anniversary Manifiesto, Original article from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, History of the republic and the victory of the Popular Front in elections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Spanish_Republic&oldid=999838406, States and territories established in 1931, States and territories disestablished in 1939, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Spain articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 05:52. Log in now! The military grew a great dislike for the government to the point where a. demand for financial subsidies beginning in 1803 and the renewal of hostilities with England late in 1804 quickly pushed the Crown to the brink of bankruptcy. They claimed that the authorities did not properly investigate it and promoted those involved in the murder whilst censoring those who cried out about it and shutting down the headquarters of right-wing parties and arresting right-wing party members, often on "flimsy charges". This way the republican government of Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to what in their view would "modernize" the country.[2]. This was only made worse due to Spanish exports being extremely low and Spain having a heavily domestic manufacturing industry. Instead, they initiated a slow and determined war of attrition against the Republican government in Madrid. Their chance came in 1931 when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. The Popular Front won the election on 16 February with 263 MPs against 156 right-wing MPs, grouped within a coalition of the National Front with CEDA, Carlists, and Monarchists. The many mistakes that the Republic had played the role in polarizing Spain. The rebellion was quickly repressed by the military. [5] The rebellion developed into a bloody revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime. [4] A general strike was called by the UGT and the PSOE in the name of the Alianza Obrera. • The democratic project that the Republic was based on aroused great hopes in the nation. Stanley Payne’s study argues that the failure of the Republic was not inevitable but depended on the policy choices of its president and the key party leaders. Azana came back to power, he was liberal and wanted to restore the modern policies and release political prisoners, this angered the right. President Alcalá-Zamora, who had always been hostile to the government, decided to call for new elections, refusing once again to invite CEDA, the party with most seats in the parliament, to form a government. [8], The government led by the Radical Republican Party went through a series of crises in 1935. The Second Republic was formed on April 14, 1931 after local elections returned anti-monarchist representatives in most cities and large towns. [42], The right reacted as if radical communists had taken control, despite the new cabinet's moderate composition; they were shocked by the revolutionary masses taking to the streets and the release of prisoners. On 12 July 1936, Lieutenant José Castillo, an important member of the anti-fascist military organisation Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA), was shot by Falangist gunmen. The north, including the Basque country, fell in late 1937, and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterward. Under the new Constitution, all of Spain's regions had the right to autonomy. • The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. However Azana firmly believed that by separating Church from the government and education he could ameliorate Spain's backwardness, and thus he continued. This also illustrates how the Republic managed to anger most classes in Spain. Seidman, Michael. However fearing the increasing popular opposition the Radicals and Socialist majority postponed the regular elections, therefore prolonging their way in power for two more years. Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular." Their chance came in 1931 when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. According to all later investigations, the perpetrator of the murder was a socialist gunman, Luis Cuenca, who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto. The birth of Spain’s Second Republic was greeted enthusiastically following the decision of both the dictator, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, and the king, Alfonso XIII, to go into exile (in January 1930 and April 1931 respectively). Jensen, Geoffrey. [7] The rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish colonial troops from Spanish Morocco. This left Asturian strikers to fight alone. This operation earned López Ochoa the nickname "Butcher of Asturias". He took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and was in power 1978, when the … Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to Civil War (1931-1936) (Studies in Spanish History) | Tardío, Manuel Álvarez, Reguillo, Fernando Del Rey | ISBN: 9781845195922 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The murder of a parliamentary leader by state police was unprecedented, and the belief that the state had ceased to be neutral and effective in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion. Not the one? [24], The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congress of Deputies. He also prevented liberal reforms being introduced before the First World War. Agrarian issues would be solved by regional commissioners on the basis of smallholdings but collective cultivation would be permitted in some circumstances. [2], Soon Azaña came into conflict with both the right and far left. The country rapidly descended into anarchy. Second Republic. The leaders of the treason (Franco was not commander-in-chief yet) did not lose heart with the stalemate and apparent failure of the coup. Legislation prior to February 1936 would be respected. [60] However, the separation of church and state was forgotten once the conflict assumed the dimension of a war of religion, and military authorities increasingly deferred to the Church and to the expression of Catholic sentiment. The constitution of The Second Spanish Republic was groundbreaking in the history of Spain and changed the face of the country. Manuel Azaña Díaz was called upon to form a government before the electoral process had come to an end, and he would shortly replace Zamora as president, taking advantage of a constitutional loophole: the Constitution allowed the Cortes to remove the President from office after two early dissolutions, and while the first (1933) dissolution had been partially justified because of the fulfillment of the Constitutional mission of the first legislature, the second one had been a simple bid to trigger early elections. [62][63], Franco's move was intended to seize power immediately, but his army uprising met with serious resistance, and great swathes of Spain, including most of the main cities, remained loyal to the Republic of Spain. This greatly contributed to their "backwardness", as their industry was located away from their coal reserves which caused immense transportation costs due to the mountainous Spanish terrain. Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed, and Madrid fell in March 1939. The suspension of the land reforms that had been attempted by the previous government, and the failure of the Asturias miners' uprising, led to a more radical turn by the parties of the left, especially in the PSOE (Socialist Party), where the moderate Indalecio Prieto lost ground to Francisco Largo Caballero, who advocated a socialist revolution. The Popular Front won the 1936 general election with a narrow victory. The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback, AS and A Level resources with teacher and student feedback, International Baccalaureate resources with teacher and student feedback, University resources with teacher and student feedback. See what the reforms were and how the military reacted. Get Full Access Now The government was, however, unable to curb mob attacks on churches and monasteries, during which priests and nuns were slain. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. Key Terms Francisco Franco A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. Major industries of the Second Spanish Republic were located in the Basque region (due to it having Europe's best high-grade non-phosphoric ore) and Catalonia. Agrarian Reform Law Apr 1, 1931. [64] Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. However, fearing the increasingly popular opposition, the Radical and Socialist majority postponed the regular elections, prolonging their power for two more years. If anything, the uprising and its results further divided the government and the people of Spain. TurnItIn – the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? [20], The new constitution established freedom of speech and freedom of association, extended suffrage to women in 1933, allowed divorce, and stripped the Spanish nobility of any special legal status. The legislation adopted resembled that of France. After 1917, the Restoration regime entered a state of crisis, which finally resulted in the coup d'état of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Captain-General of Catalonia. Learn the basics with our essay writing guide. In the summer of 1936, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, it became largely irrelevant after the authority of the Republic was superseded in many places by revolutionary socialists and anarchists on one side, and fascists on the other. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and was dissolved on 1 April 1939 after surrendering in the Spanish Civil War to the rebel faction that fought to establish a military dictatorship under General Francisco Franco. [21] Scholars have described the constitution as hostile to religion, with one scholar characterising it as one of the most hostile of the 20th century. [42] Largo Caballero and other elements of the political left were not prepared to work with the republicans, although they did agree to support much of the proposed reforms. Tough GCSE topics broken down and explained by out team of expert teachers, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing with help from our teachers, Get your head around tough topics at A-level with our teacher written guides, Start writing remarkable essays with guidance from our expert teacher team, Understand the tough topics in IB with our teacher written Study Guides, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing from our experienced teachers, Struggling with an assignment? Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. Spain’s First Democracy The Second Republic, 1931–1936 Stanley G. Payne “[Stanley Payne is] America’s most prolific historian of Spain.” —Paul Preston, New York Times Book Review The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. The 1931 Constitution was formally effective from 1931 until 1939. Did the Soviets Fail to Establish Meaningful Equality towards Women? In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. At the same time, the involvement of the Centrist government party in the Straperlo scandal deeply weakened it, further polarising political differences between right and left. The extent of its success can be seen by the fact that its membership tripled between 1931~33. Historians, however, have focused primarily on the Civil War of 1936–39 that followed, devoting much less attention to the parliamentary regime that preceded it. This cold-blooded murder had an electrifying effect which provided a catalyst to transform what was a "limping conspiracy", led by General Emilio Mola, into a powerful revolt. 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